"Issue, rule, analysis, conclusion," or IRAC, is a methodology for legal analysis but one that is useful in any situation in which one needs to find practical knowledge.
- "Issue" refers to establishing the issue at hand amid disparate, uncertain information. (See Spend more time in the problem space.)
- "Rule" means identifying the legal principles most relevant to the case;
- "Analysis" refers to describing how the rules apply to the specific at hand; and
- "Conclusion" describes the ultimate recommendation based on the analysis
This methodology seems functional for work involving situations of high uncertainty in general, where "wicked problems" require sensemaking of diverse data and a problem cannot be easily reduced to expected certainty or probabilities.
- Kay, John, and Mervyn King. Radical Uncertainty: Decision-Making Beyond the Numbers. New York, NY: WW Norton, 2020.