Four Offenses We Commit when Reasoning (Peirce)

CS Peirce outlined four offenses that we commit when we reason. As recounted by Madsbjerg, these offenses are:

  1. we make an absolute assertion that we are right;
  2. we think that something’s not knowable simply because we lack the means to know it;
  3. we insist that something is inexplicable; and
  4. we we believe that any truth exists in a final state.



Madsbjerg, Christian. Sensemaking: The Power of the Humanities in the Age of the Algorithm. Hachette Books, 2017.