CS Peirce outlined four offenses that we commit when we reason. As recounted by Madsbjerg, these offenses are:
- we make an absolute assertion that we are right;
- we think that something’s not knowable simply because we lack the means to know it;
- we insist that something is inexplicable; and
- we we believe that any truth exists in a final state.
- Abductive reasoning infers explanation from observation
- Only abductive reasoning can produce new ideas (Peirce)
Madsbjerg, Christian. Sensemaking: The Power of the Humanities in the Age of the Algorithm. Hachette Books, 2017.