Orientational metaphors organize concepts in relation to one another, typically using spatial orientations. Orientational metaphors are especially useful for conceptualizing emotions, which typically lack a clearly defined conceptual structure in and of themselves. For instance, "happy" is up while "sad" is down. These are structured in large part from deep-seated cultural values.
- Metaphors structure our interpretation of the world
- Metaphors create coherent systems of meaning
- Structural metaphors reveal and conceal different aspects of experience
- Orientational metaphors organize concepts relationally